Ubuntu on a T22

$Id: ubuntu_t22.html,v 1.57 2007/02/14 20:00:02 selander Exp $
selander (at) manja.se

Rationale: Since I will be installing Ubuntu on a T22 repeatedly, I will document my endeavours here, to support my memory, ease repetition, possibly help other, and hopefully get useful tips from friends and friendly suggestions from google referred visitors. (You can reach me at "selander (at) manja.se".)

NOTE: Even if many of these steps might be of general interest, others are very specific for me or rather my workplace. I.e., if you don't know if you need it - stay away from it.



Acquired a spare IBM Thinkpad model T22, added more memory to a total of 384 (of 512 possible) Mb, and upgraded the hard drive from a 20 Gb to a 40 Gb one (all bought used through ebay).

Ubuntu Installation, first phase

Surfed to http://www.ubuntulinux.org/, downloaded and burned the iso image of the streamlined Intel x86 Install CD for the (today) latest Ubuntu release: Ubuntu 5.04 (Hoary Hedgehog). Have since then re-performed the operation with the iso of Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger) (and the 5.10 Starter Guide is quite good).

Update: (20061124): Have now progressed to Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft). This was actually prompted by by the latest release of "Arla on blocks" (a cache blocking Arla), which deploys the semaphore-mutex transition and thus require at least a 2.6.16 kernel (Edgy Eft came with 2.6.17 - Dapper Drake still uses 2.6.15).

This time, I actually tried just to dist-upgrade (gksu "update-manager -c"). It, of course, failed miserably the first time, aborting everything because /usr/X11R6/bin wasn't empty when it tried to remove the dir to replace it with a symbolic link. I was then required to empty the dir myself, use synaptic to fix all broken package and then restart the dist upgrade. Then it at least finished.

It is too early to tell if all worked and is better. It looks alright and X and wlan kept on working. On the other hand, firefox now crashes on pages with flash and java... (That it definitely not good.) At least arla-block-TR2 compiled and works as intended, so I guess it was worth it after all, despite firefox.

Update II (20061124): The Firefox crash was due to Xorg on Edgy Eft having the composite extension enabled by default. Thus a

Section "Extensions"
	Option "Composite" "0"

in /etc/X11/xorg.conf solved it! Thank you, Google! ;-)

Update: (20060622): Have now progressed to Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake). This is truly a step forward! Not only is the installation further simplified - I don't even need to add any notes here, I know I will be able to repeat it anyway - they excellent Ubuntu developers have also made the boot-up and boot-down a lot quicker. Generally, my impression is that this is a really well rounded and well working Linux distribution.

Inserted the CD in the cd-rom drive and started the computer. Chose a standard Ubuntu installation by just pressing enter at the first menu.

Chose English as the language I would like to use (operating systems in Swedish is horribly...).

Chose Sweden as my location.

As the T22 has got an American keyboard, I chose American English as my keyboard. (See the section keyboard below to see one way to enable keys for the Swedish letters.) With another T22, with Swedish keyboard, I just choose Swedish.

The installation process let me choose between eth0 and eth1 (wireless). As I was sitting at home with my private wavelan, I tested choosing eth1, even though I have an encrypted base station. I thought I would have to open it temporarily, but no, the installation humbly asked me for the ESSID and the WEP key. Nice work, Ubuntu, especially as they ended up as directives in /etc/network/interfaces - exactly where I want them for easy commenting out when using wireless at work or on the road.

Watched the installation process proceed (took some time).

Chose my hostname, "wasabi" for this laptop, rather than the default name "ubuntu".

Partition the hard-drive

As the was nothing on the 40 Gb hard-drive I just had installed in the laptop, I chose the partitioning method Erase entire disk. However, as I did not like the default partitions (just one root and one swap partition) the installation process suggested, I chose "no" to the subsequent question on whether to write the changes to disk.

Instead, I did a manual partitioning, dividing up the hard-drive into one 7 Gb ext3 bootable root partition (large enough?), one 30 Gb ext3 /home partition, one ~1 Gb ext2 /arla partition for the arla cache, and one ~1 Gb swap partition. (For more information on arla, see the arla section below. Here it suffices to state that the arla cache has had issues with, for instance, reiserfs and functions best with a fast and reliable file system like ext2.)

Open Issues: How big need the root partition to be in the long run? Might it be beneficial to have separate /usr and /var partitions? Others, too? What is best? Primary or logical partitions? Needs to be investigated/tested.

Ubuntu Installation, second phase

Twiddled my thumbs while the installation proceeded (copying tons of packages from the CD).

Confirmed that I am in the Europe/Stockholm time zone.

Chose the full name, username, and password for the first, privileged user. This user will automatically be included in the administrator groups that are allowed to sudo to do work normally performed by the root user. (The root account is disabled by default in Ubuntu. Boy, did that take time for me to figure out, but once I did it, I actually decided to try it out and did not enable the root user first thing. Is kind of a nice security thing.)

Removed the Install CD and let the machine reboot to install more packages already copied from the CD and finalise the installation.

Twiddled my thumbs a really long time...

Easy kernel updating

The kernel that gets installed from the installation CD is 2.6.10-5-386. However, as the T22 is fitted with a Pentium III, 2.6.10-5-686 would be a more suitable choice. Thus, we use synaptic to mark linux-386, linux-headers-2.6.10-5-386, linux-image-2.6.10-5-386, linux-image-386, linux-restricted-modules-2.6.10-5-386, and linux-restricted-modules-386 for removal and the corresponding 686-packages, linux-686, linux-headers-2.6.10-5-686, linux-image-2.6.10-5-686, linux-image-686, linux-restricted-modules-2.6.10-5-686, and linux-restricted-modules-686 for installation. (With Ubuntu 5.10, it was instead kernel 2.6.12-9, but the principle of 386 and 686 is still the same.)

This is a quite funny operation to perform, as you remove the linux-image and stuff needed in order to boot the machine. If something fails before the corresponding 686-packages are safely installed, the machine will probably be totally unbootable. ;-)


If you plug the machine into a network with dhcp, the machine connects itself and starts to download missing packages during the first, set-up all packages boot up - long before it starts X and reaches the login splash. Fine, but what about wlan?

The easy fix is to add an 'iface eth1 inet dhcp' and an 'auto eth1' in /etc/network/interface, and remove the lines marked for removal in '/etc/pcmcia/wireless.opts'. Then you just need to plug in your wireless card and do a 'sudo /etc/init.d/network restart'.

However, what about scanning and choosing between available wireless networks? 'iwlist eth1 scan' gives a "Operation not supported" and there are rumours on google about one needing to get a driver patch to enable scanning. Also, I am having troubles with repeated "unregister_netdevice: waiting for eth1 to become free", that makes it hard to use the machine and impossible to shut it down without the use of the power button... Need to be investigated.

Update: bought a cheap Topcom Skyr@cer PC Card 4011b which, alas, did not exactly work out of the box. About only cardctl and lspci noticed it. Decided to try ndiswrapper. Hoary comes with ndiswrapper in the kernel by default, so no need to compile a kernel module or install ndiswrapper-source, only ndiswrapper-utils is needed. Then you insert the CD with Windows-drivers (and two RedHat-drivers!) and do the following:

sudo ndiswrapper -i /media/cdrom/driver/win2000/netr8180.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo ndiswrapper -m
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper

And, presto, the leds on the card lights and I suddenly have a wlan0 interface. (Have to update /etc/network/interfaces accordingly, either adding wlan0 or replacing eth1, and, as I try to make others have to work to access my wireless network, I also added wireless-essid and wireless-key entries to the wlan0 section.)

With ndiswrapper, sudo iwlist wlan0 scan works, too (but only with super user privileges).

Update: Because of my Box for Digital TV, I needed to upgrade my wavelan at home from 802.11b to 802.11g. Thus, I also needed a new pcmcia-card for my laptop. Unfortunately, I happened to buy one with a rather unknown chipset... No common Linux drivers, ndiswrapper worked rather unsatisfactory. What to do? A demo license from Linuxant turned out to work very well. Thus I bought a real license.

Go to http://www.linuxant.com/, click "Drivers" in the top meny, choose "WLAN DriverLoader", click "Download" in the left menu, accept the agreement, click the "DriverLoader download page"-link, click the (surprise, surprise) "Ubuntu Dapper (6.06), Breezy (5.10), 5.0.4"-link, download the version matching your current kernel. Unzip it and install it. Example:

sudo dpkg -i driverloader_2.34_k2.6.15_25_686_ubuntu_i386.deb

Set the web configurator password with dldrconfig --webconfd-pass and surf to to install your Windows driver and Linuxant license (free temporary or purchased permanent). Don't forget to disable the web configurator! (On/off: sudo dldrconfig --webconf=off/sudo dldrconfig --webconf=

(As I felt lazy and didn't want to leave my sofa to go looking for the cd that came with the pcmcia card, I surfed to Netgear's web site, found the latest driver there and downloaded it. However, as it came as an Windows exe-file, I had to run wine on it, to get it to install under wine. Then I got the INF and sys files driverloader needs from under ~/.wine/drive_c/windows/inf/WG511v2/!)

I only wonder what "Kernel module mrv8k overridden by wg511v2" really means?

Update: New kernel, the wireless card was not found any more... After some investigating, it turned out that there was no kernel modules for the new kernel present in the driver package. I solved it by downloading the Generic Debian source packages (driverloader_2.34_i386.deb.zip) that builds suitable modules when installed (sudo dpkg -i). Wireless again!

Update: Experienced some weird freezes with Edgy Eft. Decided it was time to update the Linuxant drivers. This time, there was a package for a matching kernel:

wget https://www.linuxant.com/driverloader/wlan/full/archive/driverloader-2.35/driverloader_2.35_k2.6.17_10_generic_ubuntu_i386.deb.zip
unzip driverloader_2.35_k2.6.17_10_generic_ubuntu_i386.deb.zip
dpkg -i driverloader_2.35_k2.6.17_10_generic_ubuntu_i386.deb

Update: And after update to the 2.6.17-11-generic kernel, same thing for



Obviously, as we reached the login splash, X was automagically set up. Apparently, the Ubuntu team has done a lot of work in the areas of autodetection, especially for laptops. Thank you, Ubuntu.

However, I would like a resolution of 1400x1050 rather than the default 1024x768.

Edited /ext/X11/xorg.conf, turning the depth 24 1024x768 screen (unnecessary taxing when displaying videos), into a depth 16 1400x1050 screen. Then I made the mistake of thinking that a HUP signal would make X re-read the configuration. Instead it terminated X. Ooops. Unfortunately, the restarted X was still in 1024x768.

Recent update: It depends on the hardware. The other T22 I installed got 1400x1050 without any fuss. Probably, it is a newer T22 than the other one, with better capabilities.

Ooops. Restarting X makes the text console unusable - it is only a garble of coloured stripes... Need to fixed, too.

One more good thing, System -> Preferences -> Windows, "Select windows when the mouse moves over them" (I am totally used to this).

Update: (20060518) System->Preferences->Font. Play around with it. Also visit the Details menu. If you use the laptop's lcd screen or and external flat screen, subpixel anti-aliasing is probably a good thing.

Also, note the current resolution in the Details menu. I have currently 96 dot per inch. Then run 'xdpyinfo | egrep "(dimensions|resolution)"'. I get:

  dimensions:    1600x1200 pixels (423x318 millimetres)
  resolution:    96x96 dots per inch

However, I only managed to get this after adding a DisplaySize line, with an X and an Y value to the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf. To get initial values, use the formula displaysize = pixelsize/96*25.4. I.e., 1600/96*25.4 = 423.33333333333333333316, 1200/96*25.4 = 317.5. 423 and 317 worked for me to get 'resolution: 96x96 dots per inch'.

apt source list

In order to be able to easily install the software packages of our choice, we need to enable further Ubuntu repositories to search for matching packages in. This is really a matter of editing /etc/apt/source.list, but as I like Synaptic (a graphical package manager interface to apt), I usually start Synaptic and chose "Repositories" in the "Settings" menu. Here you can easily add the Universe and Multiverse, which are not enabled by default.

The Ubuntu repositories' components:

main/Officially supported
The main distribution of free software supported by Ubuntu
restricted/Restricted copyright
Very commonly used software that is supported even though it is not available under a completely free licence.
universe/Community maintained
Every kind of softwares, should be easily installed, but comes with no guarantee of security fixes and support. Use at your own risk
Non-free software. Each user need to verify his/her rights to use it themselves. Not supported. Use at your own risk


Swedish Characters

There are numerous ways to get yourself Swedish letters on the keyboard. However, I find this option very convenient:

  1. Right-click in the top gnome-panel
  2. Choose "Add to Panel..."
  3. Add the "Keyboard Indicator"
  4. Right-click on the new Keyboard Indicator and choose "Open Keyboard Preferences"
  5. Goto the "Layouts" tab
  6. Add the Swedish layout

Now you can click on the Keyboard Indicator to cycle through your added keyboards. However, note that the selection is per application, so when you, for instance, have switched from "USA" to "Swe", you need to return with the mouse pointer to the target application directly, without visiting other windows on the way. When the indicator shows "Swe" when a window is active, you can find , , and , among others, in their ordinary places.

The best thing with this scheme, though, is that you quickly can change back to the American layout when you, for instance, need a > or < (as you know, on Swedish keyboards, the left shift is more narrow to make place for an extra key next to "z" with >, <, and |. As no such key is present at an American keyboard, it is good to be able to switch between the layouts in a hurry whenever you need it. Of course, that makes you always go for the wrong layout with your fingers all the time, but that's life.

Compose and CapsLock

Other useful things you can do when in "Keyboard Preferences" is to choose a Compose key (I chose right alt) and make an extra control key out of the dreaded CapsLock.

Character encoding in the terminals

utf-8 might be the future, but is hardly endurable in your terminals as long as all your files and remote systems you connect to are using latin-1, iso-8859-15, or the like. However, it was not enough to change the LANG and LANGUAGE environmental variables. Instead, you have to do a 'sudo dpkg-reconfigure locales' and enable some suitable encoding, like, for instance, en_US.ISO-8859-15.


OK, Ubuntu uses esd by default. Then we install mpg124-esd (using Synaptic) and tries to play an mp3. The sound seem to be working out of the box.


As it currently still is legal to backup DVDs in Sweden, we can go right ahead and execute the script /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh in order to install libdvdcss. This is illegal in the US.

Also installed gstreamer0.8-esd and w32codecs, to have my bases covered with regards to multimedia codecs. (Downloaded and installed ftp://ftp.nerim.net/debian-marillat/dists/stable/main/binary-i386/w32codecs_20050412-0.0_i386.deb - want to try to leave the Marillat repository out of Synaptic if I can.)


Installed xine-ui and dependencies using Synaptic.

Popped in a DVD movie and tried to view it with Xine. It worked directly - both video and sound, without glitches or framedrops. Unbelievable. With all the troubles I had with video with an identical T22 running Debian. Hats off for Ubuntu!

But, wait, there is more... Remember to run xine-check and follow its suggestions - otherwise xine sometimes refuses to start properly. It is also good to install libxine-dev (which, among other things, comes with a xine-config, which xine-check likes).

Also, if you ever experiences that xine only displays a blue screen, sometimes with another black rectangle attached, try to add the line Option "XaaNoOffscreenPixmaps" to the Device section of /etc/X11/xorg.conf (http://xinehq.de/index.php/faq#BLUESCREEN).

Although Xv works very well for viewing video with Xine on the lcd screen, it was buggy when I wanted to scale the image down to 640x480 in order to fit my TV screen. The movie was shrunk as it should along the X-axis, but the Y-axis did not shrink enough so part of the picture was outside the Xine-window (most often all of the sub-titles). It works to switch to, for instance, Xshm as driver, but that driver is slower than Xv. Need to check for new, better versions of the Xv driver!

Update: It seems that it was the DVD at hand that the Xv driver had problems rescaling. An ordinary .avi movie rescaled just fine (i.e., xine -V xv -B -G 640x480+0+0 works fine in conjunction with s3switch tv to view video with one's television set over a s-video to scart cable.


However, I am really a mplayer user, so of course, I need to try to get mplayer running, too.

Installed mplayer-586 (the version for Pentium machines like the T22), mplayer-docs, and mplayer-fonts, with dependencies, and tried to play the same DVD. "Your system is too SLOW to play this!" It seems that mplayer is not really up to the task, but that xine is.

(mplayer-nogui does not work better.)

Open Issue: how to tweak mplayer into working as well as xine?


The T22 can output s-video, so naturally, we would like to connect it to our TV in order to view videos. For this, we need to install s3switch to be able to switch to PAL and to enable s-video output to the TV. Interesting enough, just like on my old Debian machine, s3switch triggers a segmentation fault when you do a "s3switch PAL". However, it does work, because the image on the TV turns from black and white to colour. Perhaps a later version will not seg-fault?

Suspend to disk hibernation

Ubuntu automagically adds hibernation as an alternative at the logout menu. Very convenient. It works, too. However, you get a small error at boot time, pointing out that "resume= option should be used to set suspend device" (check dmesg).

To remedy this, we edit the grub menu ('sudo vi /boot/grub/menu.lst'). Here, we duplicate the first entry, renaming them to "Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (resume)" and "Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (no resume)". Then, we add 'resume=/dev/hda4' to the kernel line of the resume entry and noresume to the kernel line of the no resume entry. Now we can chose at boot time in grub whether we want to use or discard a present suspension image.

How do we know what device to add to the resume option in the kernel line? Simple - check /etc/fstab to see what device the swap partition is on.

Update: Ubuntu 5.10 seemed to have stream-lined it further, requiring no manual tweaking whatsoever.

Heimdal Kerberos

Installed heimdal-clients, heimdal-clients-x, heimdal-dev (to be able to compile Arla), and heimdal-docs, with dependencies.

Edited /etc/krb5.conf to set default_realm to NADA.KTH.SE, added Nada as a realm:

         kdc = k5-nada-1.pdc.kth.se
         kdc = kerberos.nada.kth.se
         kdc = k5-nada-2.pdc.kth.se
        admin_server = kerberos.nada.kth.se

and added

        encryption = true
	no-addresses = yes

(no-addresses to be able to use Kerberos to access work from home without to much hassle, too).

Tried out kauth, klist, and a ktelnet -f. Worked flawlessly. ;-)

However, the Ubuntu Heimdal package is version 0.6.3. The currently latest release at KTH is 0.6.4. (0.7.1, moving target, you know...) Need to keep an eye out to see if the Heimdal packages will slip just too far behind the latest release.

To configure&make (make check) the latest heimdal yourself, you need to install make, gcc, g++, bison, flex, and libncurses5-dev first, if not already present. LDFLAGS=-lncurses can be good, too.

2006-05-15, heimdal 0.7.2: It turns out that, to make arla happy, one should configure install openssl before compiling heimdal and verify that heimdal finds it by checking that HAVE_OPENSSL is defined in the build's include/config.h (otherwise, one should prompt heimdal's configure to use it with --with-openssl=/usr).

Update: (2006-05-19) One likes to have rxtelnet and the rest of the X aware heimdal tools, right? Then you probably need to install libx11-dev (libX11, X11/Xlib.h), libxau-dev (X11/Xauth.h), and libxt-dev (X11/Intrinsic.h)...

Update: (2006-06-22) OK, now it is 0.7.3 that is the choice of the discriminating Heimdaler. Aside from the normal stuff, I had the problem that configure complained over cc1plus being missing. Had to surf a little to crack that one. Turns out that you need to have the g++ version matching the gcc version your current kernel were compiled with. Then everything works. Oh, with libssl-dev installed, configure sets HAVE_OPENSSL by itself.

Arla AFS

Here I am a bit at loss. The Ubuntu arla packages (in Universe) is just version 0.36, but at Stacken, the currently latest release is 0.39. I'm leaning on compiling 0.39 myself, but I will at least try the Universe packages first.


Thus installed the arla packages with dependencies. Nice interactive configuration. Entered "" as DB servers (picked them from /etc/arla/CellServDB on another machine).

Hmmm, something failed with the set-up of /dev/nnpfs0... Re-installation did not work, but removal and new installation seemed to solve it. I never got to see the interactive configuration again, though. One perhaps need to perform a complete removal to get that again,

Proceed to compile the arla kernel modules (/usr/src/arla.tar.gz). (Ooops, needed to install both gcc and g++ just in order to get ./configure going...) Hmmm. Do I want to download the Linux kernel source, just to compile the 0.36 Arla kernel module when I know that 0.39 self-compiled require no such thing and also let me put all the Arla stuff under /usr/arla instead of in /usr/bin? (In addition, if I compile it myself, I can set the Arla cache to the /arla partition I created at configure time.) OK, I will completely remove the 0.36 Arla packages and hope for some latest version packages someday.


Downloaded 0.39, installed libssl-dev, openssl, byacc, flex, libdb4.3-dev, and linux-headers-2.6.10-5-386 (and made the linux symb link to it in /usr/src), added a strategical -h to tar in nnpfs/linux/Makefile.in, and ran ./configure (CFLAGS=-DHAVE_OPENSSL ./configure --with-arlacachedir=/arla), make, make install.

Note: Don't just install all the packages above. Do it only if configure or make fails because they are lacking.

Edited /usr/arla/etc/ThisCell (PDC) and added a /usr/arla/etc/TheseCells (PDC, NADA).

Wow, then a (Heimdal) kauth automagically gives me afs tokens that allows me to access my private files under afs. Nice.


After the kernel upgrade, arla of course needed re-compilation (well, at least the kernel module). Strangely enough, the compilation failed because it could not find the h-files of Xaw (/usr/include/X11/Xaw/...). How come it compiled under 2.6.10-5-386 but not 2.6.10-5-686? After installing libxaw8-dev (libxaw8 was already installed), it of course worked to compile again.


Installed libssl-dev, openssl, libdb4.3-dev, libxaw7-dev and linux-headers-686. gcc-4.0 didn't like some __progname declarations. Installed gcc-3.4 as well, and used that instead (CC=gcc-3.4). Also had to re-compile heimdal with gcc-3.4. Lastly, I had to patch nnps_systemcalls.c (found the patch in the arla-drinkers archive).


As 0.39.

Update: Upgraded to Ubuntu 5.10, "Breezy Badger" and then to the newest kernel. When re-compiling arla, aside from needed packages (see above), I had to resort to this command line: make distclean && CFLAGS=-DROKEN_LIB_FUNCTION='' ./configure --with-arlacachedir=/arla --without-krb4 --without-roken && make. I have no idea why ROKEN_LIB_FUNCTION, that normally is defined as _stdcall, caused syntax errors, but they did.


(2006-05-15) With an openssl-aware heimdal in place, arla compiled happily after a './configure --without-krb5 --with-krb5=/usr/heimdal --with-roken-include=/usr/heimdal/include --with-roken-lib=/usr/heimdal/lib --with-roken=/usr/heimdal'. (All the krb5 and roken switches are due to arla's not too bright configure checks).

One can leave --with-arlacachedir out if one mounts the ext2 partition reserved for the cache under the standard palce, /usr/arla/cache (i.e., only a quick fix in /etc/fstab).


Read all of the above on arla. Still with me? Then, for 0.43, on a pretty virgin Dapper Drake, you need to install libreadline5-dev in order to get rid of missing FreeBSD-thingies like TIOCGETP and TIOCSETP being showstoppers. (readline doesn't offer them, but with readline-dev, configure knows the compilation can use the readline lib instead of the old FreeBSD-stuff).

I also needed libxaw7-dev to get rid of all missing *Xaw* showstoppers.


This cache blocking Arla release deploys mutex instead of semaphores (a subtle improvement). Unfortunately, mutex is only supported from kernel 2.6.16 and up, so I had to upgrade Ubuntu in order to be able to compile it. Once I had Edgy Eft, though, it both compiled and installed with just './configure ; make ; make check ; make install'. That's a first - but then again, the system still contains all the packages previous arla versions identified as missing and that I thus installed.

It is to early to tell whether the new arla gives any improvements in performance, but I somehow got the impression that this file - that I happen to have in afs - actually is somewhat faster to save.

arla 0.90

./configurure ; make ; make check ; make install

Unfortunately, from home, I nowadays suffer from "Network is down". Very annoying, it has worked so well before. However, I have colleagues experiencing the same thing, so there are more minds than mine trying to figure the problem out.


OK, the configuration files look pretty different than for my old Postfix installation, but here it goes!

We modify the entries myhostname, relayhost (host:port), and add virtual_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual, smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes, smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/smtp_auth, and smtp_sasl_security_options = noplaintext.

Also, we create the file virtual, redirecting root to an address we normally read, and smtp_auth, with the credentials for the relay host.

Finally, you need to run postmap on these last files, in order to convert them to Berkeley database format and restart postfix.

That was enough to get postfix to contact ratatosk in order to relay the mails, but ratatosk refused to accept them as long as /etc/mailname (localhost.localdomain) was used as sender address. After modifying it, I can mail via ratatosk! The mails to root@wasabi get relayed as well.

Second Hard Drive

Thinkpads are pretty cool. With my brand new Ultrabay 2000 Hard Drive Adaptor, I can slip the old 20 Gb hard drive into the Ultrabay as a second hard drive. I could mount the old partitions (sudo mount -t [type] /dev/hdcN [dir]), but since the only thing on it was my first Ubuntu installation, it was not much use. Instead, I wanted to re-partition it to just one, big volume. cfdisk solved that (sudo cfdisk /dev/hdc), followed by a sudo mkfs.reiserfs /dev/hdc1. Now it just a simple matter of mounting it wherever I want it: sudo mount -t reiserfs /dev/hdc1 [mount point].

The second hard drive is a real life-saver (well, at least time-saver) when re-installing one's production laptop, as one quick and easily can backup one's home-directory, /etc, and other files that you don't want to lose and takes (too) long to backup over the network.


Not only is it good to be able to do backups, it is good to be able to read back previously made backups. Luckily, we have a tsm in place at work just for this!

Necessary steps:

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